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丹麦王子为父亲报仇的故事:Hamlet

来源:未知  作者:佚名  时间:2021-03-28  
Hamlet
 

 

今天是Shakespeare超级有名的Hamlet,讲述了丹麦王子经历了内心的一系列斗争后为父亲报仇的故事。

中文简介

 

英文简介很长,直接看中文也是可以的哦

Hamlet本来在德国念书,但是他的父亲丹麦国王死掉了要他回去参加葬礼,等他回去时发现母亲早已嫁给了自己的叔父。后来丹麦国王的鬼魂出现了,他告诉Hamlet自己是被Claudius给害死的,而这个鬼魂只有Hamlet一人能看得见。鬼魂告诉Hamlet自己是在后花园睡觉时被Claudius往耳朵里滴了毒汁毒发身亡。Hamlet就想要测试一下Claudiud,于是他安排了一出情节十分相似的一出戏,一位公爵被自己的近亲害死,而这个近亲后来还娶了公爵夫人。Claudius果真坐立难安,怀疑Hamlet已经知道了事实真相,他派人盯着Hamlet,其中Hamlet的好朋友就是他安排的眼线,Hamlet与自己的母亲在谈话时发生了争执,而Hamlet听到帘子后面有声音,以为是Claudius躲在帘子后面偷听,便向帘子后面刺去,谁知道是自己的爱人Ophelia的父亲Polonius。结果Hamlet误把自己爱人的父亲杀死了。Claudius就骗Hamlet说Polonius的儿子也就是Ophelia的哥哥Laertes要为他父亲的死报仇,让Hamlet去英国,企图让Hamlet死在异国他乡。Hamlet在去英国一半的路上折返。Ophelia因为父亲死了,而Hamlet也消失不见而投河自尽。Hamlet回来时听到的Ophelia的噩耗,而Laertes来找他决斗,Claudius准备了毒剑与毒酒,Hamlet两回获胜,王后Gertrude非常高兴,将原本Claudius为Hamlet准备的毒酒喝了下去,而Hamlet后来也被Laertes的毒剑刺伤,他夺过那把毒剑也刺伤了对方,然后又把剑向Claudius刺去,刺伤了Claudius,毒发身亡。结局就是大家都死了······

 

Hamlet Summary:
如嫌太长可以不看这一部分

丹麦王子为父亲报仇的故事:Hamlet

 

The play opens with Prince Hamlet being summoned to Denmark from Germany for his father’s funeral. When he reaches there, he finds that his mother Queen Gertrude has already remarried to his fraternal uncle, Claudius. For Hamlet, this marriage was a big shock and considered it “foul incest”. Even worse than this, Claudius has crowned himself disregard of the fact that being King’s son, this crown belongs to Hamlet. Hamlet doubts the whole scenario as foul play.

All of Hamlet’s doubts and suspicions are confirmed when his father’s ghost visits the Castle and complains that because he is murdered, he is unable to rest in peace. Moreover, the ghost claims that Claudius had poured poison in the ear of King Hamlet when he was sleeping causing his death. The king’s ghost, impotent to confess and find redemption, is now condemned to pass his days in despair and walk on earth at night. He persuades and begs his son Hamlet to take revenge from Claudius, however, he asks to spare Gertrude and let her fate decided by heaven.

Hamlet pledges to avenge his father’s death and wears a mask of madness so that he would be able to observe the interactions among people in the castle. However, by doing so, Hamlet finds himself somewhat very confused and questions the trustworthiness of the ghost. What if the ghost is a devil’s agent directed to allure him? What if by killing Claudius consequences Hamlet to revive his memory throughout for life? Hamlet cannot stop himself from over-thinking and worries over his thought and perceive them as his cowardice. Words restrict action, however, the world in which he lives pay back every action.

To test the sincerity of the Ghost. Hamlet takes help from the troupe of actors who staged a play named The Murder of Gonzago. Hamlet added few scenes to play that resembles the murder of the King Hamlet as described by the ghost. Hamlet named this revised play as “The Mousetrap”. The play is proved successful as the Claudius reacted to the play and seems to be conscience-stricken, as hoped by Prince Hamlet. Claudius immediately leaves the place as he faces difficulty to breathe. Prince Hamlet, being convinced by the sincerity of the ghost, vows to avenge his father’s death and decided to kill Claudius. But “conscience doth make cowards of us all”, as observed by Hamlet.

Hamlet, by his unwillingness to avenge Claudius, causes six subsidiary deaths. The first victim is Polonius, an old man, who is stabbed by Hamlet through a wall hanging as Polonius spies on hamlet and his mother. Claudius banishes Hamlet to England to punish him for Polonius’ death and instructs Hamlet’s school chums, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to handover him to English king for execution. Hamlet, during the journey, discovers what is going on and arranges a plot for the execution of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Ophelia, highly upset on her father’s death and Hamlet’s behavior, drown herself while singing a song and lamenting over the fate of a despised lover. Laertes, her brother, follows next.

When Laertes returned to Denmark to kill Claudius to avenge his father’s death, sees that Ophelia, his sister, has drowned by madness. Laertes, in the love of her sister, pledges to kill Hamlet for being the cause of Ophelia’s death. Through his creative words, Laertes convinced Claudius to kill Hamlet. Hamlet and Laertes have a sword fight. In the middle of the fight, Laertes drops his poisoned sword that is retrieved by Hamlet and wounds Laertes. Laertes tells Hamlet of the poisoned sword and as Hamlet is already been wounded by the sword, he, too, will die soon. Meanwhile, Horatio informs Hamlet that “Queen Falls”. Gertrude has drunk a sip from the poisoned cup, that was prepared by Claudius for Hamlet and she dies.

Laertes, before he dies, made another confession to Hamlet of his part in the plot and tell him the Claudius is responsible for Gertrude’s death. Enraged Hamlet stabs the poisoned sword into Claudius and pours the remaining poisoned wine into Claudius’ throat.

Before he dies, the throne should pass to the Prince Fortibras of Norway, declares Hamlet. He also begs his friend Horatio to tell him accurately the events that lead to such bloodshed.

The play ends with a grand funeral for Prince Hamlet as ordered by King Fortinbras of Denmark.

主要人物

丹麦王子为父亲报仇的故事:Hamlet

 

The main characters of the play are:

Hamlet:

He is the Prince of Denmark and son of the deceased king. He is called from Wittenberg University in Germany to attend his father’s funeral. When he reaches Denmark, he comes to know that his mother has remarried very soon to his uncle. Moreover, his uncle has crowned himself. This makes Hamlet very suspicious. These suspicious changes to reality when Hamlet encounters his father’s ghost. After hearing his father’s confession he vows to avenge his father’s death. Hamlet, in the play, is a highly confused person that leads to the bloody end of the play. To be or not to be is one the most celebrated dialogue of Hamlet and representation of his confused state of mind.

Claudius:

He is the present king of Denmark and brother of the deceased king, King Hamlet. He is accused of killing his brother and remarries widow of the Queen.

Gertrude:

She is the Queen of Denmark and also the wife of deceased King Hamlet. She immediately remarries to Claudius, brother of King Hamlet.

Laertes:

He is a son of Polonius and brother of Ophelia. He is a student in Paris. Who first appears at the funeral of the King Hamlet and secondly at the death of his sister, Ophelia.

Horatio:

He is a loyal friend and a schoolmate of Prince Hamlet.

Polonius:

He is an old chief counselor of Claudius. He is murdered by Prince Hamlet when caught him spying.

Ophelia:

She is the daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes and Hamlet’s beloved. She commits suicide after her father’s death.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern:

The classmates of Hamlet at Wittenberg whom Claudius called to spy on him.

主题

 

 

Hamlet Themes:(这只是我另外找到的可能牵涉到的主题,看一下就可以了。最重要的Hamlet这个人的人物分析)

Mortality:

The question of life and death is introduced just as the play opens. Hamlet, throughout the play, ponders the complexity of life and considers the meaning of life. Throughout the play, many questions emerge as what happens when one dies? Will someone directly goes to heaven, if he/she is murdered? etc. Furthermore, Hamlet is very uncertain about the afterlife and causes him to quit suicide. The death of almost all the major characters of the play, towards the end of the play, doesn’t fully answer the question of mortality. The character of Hamlet represents exploration and discussion disregard of a true perseverance.

这部作品中对于生与死的探讨令每一个读者深刻,一个人死了之后会是什么样子的谁也不知道,另外的世界已经超出了Hamlet的认知,不在他的知识能力范围内,所以他犹豫,内心进行了剧烈斗争。

Madness:

Hamlet, after hearing confessions from the ghost acts like a mad person to fool people in order to know the reality of the people around him. He acts so to prove himself harmless. However, this madness was recognized by Polonius. The irony arises when he falsely believes that Hamlet’s method stems from his love for Ophelia. It was impressive of Polonius that he recognizes the method behind Hamlet’s madness.

However, Hamlet starts losing his hold on reality by acting mad. He faces difficulty in handling the circumstances that are emotionally driven. Surrendering himself to physical violence displays that he has more issues than merely acting mad. This all scenario comes up with a question that what compels Hamlet to act such without considering the consequences?

Women

There are only two female characters in the play Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother and Ophelia, Polonius’ daughter and Hamlet’s beloved.

Hamlets seem to be nervous while communicating with both of the women. In Hamlet’s life, both of these women have a special position, however, he is suspicious of both. The too early remarriage of her made him very suspicious of her mother. Secondly, Ophelia is in cahoots with her family and Hamlet realizes it when he starts acting mad.(里面的女性可以从女性主义分析,或者是扁形人物来分析)

Both of the ladies let Hamlet down. However, Ophelia is viewed as a victim of Hamlet brutality while Gertrude is represented as the more flexible character.

Political Livelihood:

With the death of King Hamlet, the nation of Denmark starts deteriorating as the death of a king causes political turmoil in the country. Hamlet erratic behavior leads to unrest in the country. At various points in the play, the mad behavior of Hamlet is linked with the political livelihood of the country.

必背片段

To be, or not to be(要知道这个的意思to die or live)—that is the(此处是the而不是a哦) question:

Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep—

No more; and by a sleep to say we end

The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks

That flesh is heir to, ‘tis a consummation

Devoutly to be wish’d. To die, to sleep;

To sleep: perchance to dream. Ay, there’s the rub;

For in that sleep of death what dreams may come

When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,

Must give us pause. There’S the respect

That makes calamity of so long life.

For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,

The oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely,

The pangs of despised love, the law’s delay,

The insolence of office and the spurns

That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

When he himself might his quietus make

With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,

To grunt and sweat under a weary life,

But that the dread of something after death,

The undiscover’d country from whose bourn

No traveller returns, puzzles the will

And makes us rather bear those ills we have

Than fly to others that we know not of?

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;

And thus the native hue of resolution

Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought,

And enterprises of great pith and moment

With this regard their currents turn awry,

And lose the name of action.

生存或毁灭, 这是个必答之问题:
是否应默默的忍受坎苛命运之无情打击,
还是应与深如大海之无涯苦难奋然为敌,
并将其克服。
此二抉择, 究竟是哪个较崇高?
死即睡眠,它不过如此!
倘若一眠能了结心灵之苦楚与肉体之百患,
那么,此结局是可盼的!
死去,睡去……
但在睡眠中可能有梦,啊,这就是个阻碍:
当我们摆脱了此垂死之皮囊,
在死之长眠中会有何梦来临?
它令我们踌躇,
使我们心甘情愿的承受长年之灾,
否则谁肯容忍人间之百般折磨,
如暴君之政、骄者之傲、失恋之痛、法章之慢、贪官之侮、或庸民之辱,
假如他能简单的一刃了之?
还有谁会肯去做牛做马,终生疲於操劳,
默默的忍受其苦其难,而不远走高飞,飘於渺茫之境,
倘若他不是因恐惧身后之事而使他犹豫不前?
此境乃无人知晓之邦,自古无返者。

Hamlet的形象

 

1,scholar,首先从他的社会地位来讲他是一位丹麦王子,但他同时也是一个知识渊博的学者。

2,Melancholy,忧郁的特点在他身上展现的淋漓尽致,他几次想要复仇但都因为一些别的想法而没有下手

3,Humanism,他身上还展现着人文主义,对于生和死的思考,人生的思考。

关于Hamlet的形象很多辅导书上都会有,看的多会乱,把关键词圈出来围绕着说就可以了,看书的时候一定要在书旁边把每段的关键词找出来,一定一定啊!否则时间长了就跟没看一样的。一定要找关键词!

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