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著名的文艺复兴时期散文家:Francis Bacon 弗兰西斯·培根

来源:未知  作者:佚名  时间:2021-03-28  

  作家简介

  助记:Franc+is  Bacon就很好记了,记成常吃的熏肉就可以辣。

  Francis Bacon 弗兰西斯·培根(1561—1626) ,文艺复兴时期的散文家和哲学家,近代实验科学的先驱,英国唯物主义的始祖。他出身伦敦贵族世家,就读于剑桥大学三一学院,曾任大理院院长,被封为勋爵,但因受贿而被弹劾削官,余生著书立说,取得很高的文学、哲学成就。

  科学方面的著述包括《学术的进展》 ( The Advancement of Learning,1605)和《新工具》 ( Novum Organum,1620) ,前者将所有的科学知识系统分类,将科学的严谨性与论述的深入浅出结合起来,对启蒙时代百科全书派的文风影响很深;后者则探讨了科学的研究方法。哲学方面的著作是《新大西岛》 ( New Atlantis,1627) ,书中描写了乌托邦式的社会,其发展依赖于整体科学研究的进步。流传最广的是他的《论说文集》 ( Essays,1597,1612,1625) 。培根的散文表现力强,且琅琅上口,即使是很普通的话题,也可以写得雄辩而具说服力,读者可以从下面的选文中体会到这一特点。
著名的文艺复兴时期散文家:Francis Bacon 弗兰西斯·培根

  随笔( essay)作为一种文学体裁,始于蒙田的《随笔》 ( Essais,1580) ,而培根则被视为这一文学形式在英国的第一传人。他的《论说文集》初版于1597年,经多次增补,1625年版共收入随笔五十八篇。其文章以贵族和资产阶级世家子弟为对象,探讨处世哲学、治学方法、爱情婚姻等各方面问题,文字简洁,表达准确,逻辑严密,多警句格言。这种朴素、准确、以探讨具体问题为目的的文风,既体现了培根作为实验科学先驱的本色,又适应了当时科学著作和报刊文学以及近代小说兴起的要求。

  Francis Bacon, the first major English essayist, comments forcefully in Of Studies on the value of reading, writing, and learning.

  主要作品

  Essays《随笔》

  Meditations《沉思》知识就是力量这句话就来自这部作品。

  Advancement of Learning《论学术的进展》

  The New Atlantis《新亚特兰蒂斯》

  Novum Organum(New Instrument)《新工具》

  作品介绍

  Of Love《论爱情》中,培根认为爱情也需自制,否则会让人迷失自我,让人无法致力于更高尚更严肃的事业。在享乐和追求爱情的过程中都要适度和自制,这是培根的一贯观点,与他作为新兴资产阶级的立场和心态也是一致的。

  Of Studies《论读书》是文集中篇幅最短的随笔之一,但却最广为人知。在这篇随笔中,培根指出做学问要有端正的态度和正确的方法,认为正如运动锻炼人的身体,读书则能完善人的精神。这些观点在今日仍不乏借鉴意义。

  了解名言

  名言也可以用在写作中举成例子的

  Money is a good servant, but a bad master.

  金钱是好的仆人,却是不好的主人。

  Knowledge is power.

  知识就是力量。

  重要作品解释

  Bacon's essay expresses several comments in Of Studies that can be interpreted(解释) as the following:

  1.Studying is helpful for better understanding and provides a knowledge that develops experience, as well as a character that grows.(可从知识理解经验增加个人成长方面记忆)

  2.Reading provides delight and fun, ornament and showing off, and the ability for success.(可提供一些开心娱乐方面)

  3.Bacon expanded upon different fields of study depending on one's goal; for example, to master clarity with language, study poetry.(开展哪一方面的学习还是要根据个人的目标的)

  需要阅读的重要作品

  Of Studies论读书

  Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness, and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business.

  读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处 世判事之际。

  For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies, is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.

  练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

  They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience—for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

  读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

  Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

  有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

  Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

  读书时不可存心诘难读者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

  Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

  书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。

  Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

  读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

  Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in morse.(此段落要背会,重点!重点!重点!)

  读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。

  Nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach ; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen, for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

  人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题需全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特效可医。

  论学习作品内容:The work analyzes what studies chiefly serve for, the different ways adopted by people to persue studies, and how studies exert influence over human beings.

  培根的写作风格是非常有说服力,紧凑,简洁的。persuasive,compact and precise.只要围绕着简洁说服力强之类展开就可。

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