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定语从句常见错误解析与训练

来源:未知  作者:佚名  时间:2021-04-24  

  一、误认为关系代词whose只用于修饰人

  whose用作疑问代词时,主要用于指人;但用作关系代词时,它既可指人也可指物。如:

  It was an island, whose name I have forgotten. 它是一座岛,名字我忘了。

  The factory, whose workers are all women, is closed during the holidays. 这家工厂工人都是妇女,在假期中工厂关门了。

  二、混淆定语从句与并列句

  请看下面两题:

  1. He has two children, and both of _____ are abroad.

  A. them    B. which    C. whom    D. who

  2. He has two children, both of _____ are abroad.

  A. them    B. which    C. whom    D. who

  第1题选A,第2题选C。由于第1题中用了并列连词and,从而使整个句子为并列句,and后应是一个独立的简单句,所以选A不选C;第2题没有并列连词and,both of whom are abroad为非限制性定语从句。另外,请比较下面一题:

  He has two children, both of _____ being abroad.

  A. them    B. which    C. whom    D. who

  此题答案为A,其中的both of them being abroad为独立主格结构,用作状语。

  请再看一组类似的例子:

  1. He wrote a lot of novels, many of _____ translated into foreign languages.

  A. it       B. them      C. which      D. that

  2. He wrote a lot of novels, many of _____ were translated into foreign languages.

  A. it       B. them     C. which      D. that

  第1应选B,而不能选C,是因为句中的 translated 是过去分词(非谓语动词),若选C,则该从句无谓语;第2应选C,因为句中有谓语 were translated。比较下面一例:

  He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _____ were translated into foreign languages.

  A. it      B. them      C. which      D. that

  此题与上面的第2题不同,两句间多了一个并列连词and,说明这是一个并列句,故应选B,则不能选C。
定语从句常见错误解析与训练

  三、混淆关系代词与关系副词

  有的同学一看到先行词是表示时间、地点、原因的名词,就认为一定要用关系副词,其实也不一定。在此情况下,还要看关系词在定语从句中是用作什么成分,若是用作状语,则用关系副词,若不是用作状语(如用作主语、宾语等)则不能用关系副词,而用关系代词。比较:

  This is the factory where I want to work. 这就是我想工作的工厂。(work为不及物动词where在从句中用作状语)

  This is the factory that I want to visit. 这就是我想参观的工厂。(visit为及物动词,that用作visit的宾语)

  The reason why he can’t come is that he is ill. 他没来的是因为他病了。(come为不及物动词,why在定语从句中用作状语)

  The reason that he put forth is very important. 他提出的理由很重要。(put forth为及物动词,that在定语从句中用作其宾语)

  比较下面的考题:

  1. This is the room _____ I lived ten years ago.

  A. that     B. where    C. who    D. what

  2. This is the room _____ I lived in ten years ago.

  A. that     B. where    C. who    D. what

  3. This is the room _____ I bought ten years ago.

  A. that     B. where    C. who    D. what

  4. This is the room _____ I visited ten years ago.

  A. that     B. where    C. who    D. what

  5. This is the room _____ I was born ten years ago.

  A. that     B. where    C. who    D. what

  第1题选B,因为 live 是不及物动词,它无需接宾语;第2题选A,因为虽然 live 不及物,但live in 却是及物,它应有自己的宾语;第3、4题也应选A,因为 buy 和 visit均为及物动词,它们应有自己的宾语;第5应选B,因为 be born 无需有自己的宾语。

  四、误认为逗号后一定是非限制性定语从句

  有的同学一看见逗号,就以为一定要选which而不选that,但问题是有时根本就不是定语从句。如:

  1. If a book is in English, _____ means slow progress for you.

  A. as    B. which     C. what    D. that

  2. When I say two hours, _____ includes time for eating.

  A. as    B. which    C. what    D. that

  以上两题均应选that,而不能选which,因为它们根本不是定语从句。之所以选that,是因为句中已有if和when引导的状语从句,逗号后为主句,that为主句主语。

  五、混淆定语从句与状语从句

  有些试题,从表面看它是定语从句,而实际上它是状语从句;而有些试题则可能完全相反,即从表面看它是状语从句,而实际上是定语从句。请看下面两道试题:

  1. I went upstairs _____ I heard someone crying.

  A. where    B. when    C. that    D. which

  【分析】答案是B而不是A,when的意思是“当……的时候”,引导的是时间状语从句。(upstairs为副词,不宜用作先行词)

  2. He is ______ a clever boy ______ we all like.

  A. such, that     B. such, as

  C. so, that         D. so, as

  【分析】答案选B,而不是A。such … that …(如此……以致……)用于引导结果状语从句,其中的that不充当句子成分,而such…as…中的as为关系代词,用以引导定语从句并在定语从句充当句子成分。上句中第二空之所以选as,是因为它用作动词like的宾语。

  六、弄错定语从句中谓语动词的数

  原则上说,定语从句中谓语动词的单复数应与所修饰先行词的单复数保持一致,否则就会出错。如:

  谁那样说都是在说谎。

  误:Anyone who say that is lying.

  正:Anyone who says that is lying.

  不算生病的,我们一共20人。

  误:There are 20 of us, not counting those who is sick.

  正:There are 20 of us, not counting those who are sick.

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