高中英语写作话题「关于食物浪费现象」英语作文套句范文及写作思路指导

一、What-如何描述食物浪费现象?

①Leaving unwanted broccoli on your plate is not just bad manners. ②It is also poor treatment of the planet. ③Perhaps a third of the world’s food—1.3 billion tonnes—is wasted each year. ④Resources used to grow and transport food are squandered when veggies remain uneaten. ⑤Some $750 billion worth of food is thrown away.(The Economist, 2016.8)

在盘子里剩点西蓝花,这不仅仅是没有礼仪,也是对地球的虐待。每年全世界大约有三分之一的食物(13亿吨)被浪费掉了。如果蔬菜没有吃掉的话,用于种植和运输食物的资源也被浪费了。大约价值7500亿美元的食物被扔掉了。
①②两句先对“食物浪费”这一行为进行评价:bad manners + poor treatment of the planet,注意,表示“食物浪费”时,作者并没有使用常规说法food waste,而是用了一个特别有画面感的表达:leaving unwanted broccoli on your plate 把不想要的西蓝花留在你的盘子里。broccoli -“西蓝花”。 ③④⑤三句分别从百分比、吨数、资源、价值等角度,详细说明“食物浪费”这一问题。squander是“挥霍、浪费”的意思,是waste的高级替换,后面可以加时间、资源、金钱、机会等,比如:这段话我们能收集到很多表示“食物浪费”的词语,比较形象的说法有:leaving unwanted broccoli on your plateveggies remain uneaten常规说法有:waste / squander / throw away

With millions of households across the country struggling to have enough to eat, and millions of tons of food being tossed in the garbage, food waste is increasingly being seen as a serious environmental and economic issue.(New York Times, 2015.2.25)

全国有数百万家庭吃不饱,与此同时还有数百万吨食物被扔进垃圾箱,食物浪费愈加成为一个严重的环境和经济问题。
这段话是一个典型的作文开头句:With XX, YY is increasingly being seen as a serious issue / top concern.With后面跟了两个并列结构:

  1. millions of households across the country struggling to have enough to eat
  2. millions of tons of food being tossed in the garbage

struggle to have enough to eat :为填饱肚子而苦苦挣扎,简单说就是“吃不饱”。food be tossed in the garbage表示“食物被扔到垃圾箱、浪费食物”,toss有throw的意思。

二、Why-为什么浪费食物?

接下是第二个模块:人们为什么要浪费食物?

①Arab states waste a lot of food. A study in 2016 by the Economist Intelligence Unit found that Saudi Arabia bins 427kg per person annually, triple the average in Europe and North America. ②Some may chalk this up to traditions of hospitality: even a “light lunch” in Cairo or Beirut leaves guests in a torpor.

阿拉伯国家浪费了很多食物。经济学人智库在2016年做了一项研究,发现沙特阿拉伯每年每人扔427公斤食物,这是欧洲和北美平均水平的三倍。有人可能将此归因于热情好客的传统:在开罗或贝鲁特,即使是一顿“清淡的午餐”也会让客人萎靡不振。
这段话共两句话,其中第①句讲了阿拉伯国家存在严重的浪费现象,②句分析了其原因:热情好客的传统。①句的主干是:A study in 2016 by the Economist Intelligence Unit found that Saudi Arabia bins 427kg per person annually.2016年,经济学人智库的一项研究发现,沙特阿拉伯每年每人扔427公斤食物。这里的bin是动词,同throw,表示“扔”。后面triple the average in Europe and North America是形容词结构的修饰成分,triple = three times 是…三倍的。②句中有一个罕见用法:chalk A up to B,把A归因于B,= A is caused by B。文中 chalk this up to traditions of hospitality 的意思便是:把它(浪费)归因于好客的传统。在中国也这样,别人来你家做客,不管饭量如何,总要做一大桌子菜,讲究场面。 

冒号后面进行解释:even a “light lunch” in Cairo or Beirut leaves guests in a torpor.light lunch指“清淡的午餐”,但light lunch加了引号,表示讽刺和否定,即并非真的清淡。「leave sb+adj./prep.」是外刊中很常见的结构,表示“使某人处于某种状态”。torpor指the state of not being active and having no energy or enthusiasm 的状态,如何翻译视语境而定,文中 leave guests in a torpor 就可以理解成:让客人萎靡不振。  

Believe it or not, one reason for high amounts of food waste is affection. One study showed that preparing and over-serving large portions of food is a way of showing love and affection for friends and family. One of the biggest factors in food waste is that many people simply do not realize how much food they throw away, nor do they realize the environmental impacts of that waste.(RDT Online)

信不信由你,造成食物大量浪费的一个原因就是感情。一项研究表明,准备过多饭菜是一种表达对朋友和家人的喜爱之情的方式。造成食物浪费的最大因素之一就是,许多人根本没有意识到他们扔掉了多少食物,也没有意识到这些浪费对环境的影响。
这两段话语言很简单,更容易模仿背诵,而且跟我们的写作更为接近。我们汉语也常说“XX的一个原因是因为YY”,虽然能听懂,但从语法角度讲还是错的。 

三、Effect-浪费食物会带来什么问题?

接下来我们看一下浪费食物带来的影响,或者说,为什么要节约粮食?这一模块将从气候、环境、经济及人口这几个方面来说:
第一,环境和气候:

Most food waste is thrown away in landfills, where it decomposes and emits methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Globally, it creates 3.3 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases annually, about 7 percent of the total emissions.(New York Times, 2015.2.25)

大多数食物垃圾都被扔进了垃圾填埋场,然后分解并释放出甲烷——一种强效温室气体。在全球范围内,食物垃圾每年产生33亿吨的温室气体,约占总排放量的7%。
句首的food waste不是“食物浪费”,而是“食物垃圾”,waste在这里不是抽象名词“浪费”,而是具体名词指“垃圾、废物”,比如 household waste 家庭垃圾,industrial waste 工业废料。后面where引导的从句中,decompose指“分解”,前缀“de-”表示否定,compose是“组成”的意思,合起来就是“组成的反义”,即“分解”。文中的metric tons指“公吨”,其实就是我们平常说的“吨”。
再来看经济角度:

The report estimates that / a third of all the food produced in the world / is never consumed, and the total cost of that food waste / could be as high as $400 billion a year. Reducing food waste from 20 to 50 percent globally / could save $120 billion to $300 billion a year / by 2030.(New York Times, 2015.2.25)

该报告估计,全球有三分之一的食物没有被吃掉,而这些浪费掉的食物每年带来多达4000亿美元的成本。如果能把全球食物浪费减少20-50%,那到2030年为止,每年可以节省1200亿-3000亿美元。
这段话理解起来不难,我们可以把第1句话里的“the total cost of that food waste could be as high as $400 billion”改成:“at a total cost of $400 billion”。
再看人口角度:

The less the world wastes, the easier it will be to meet the food needs of the global population in coming years. Second, cutting back on waste could go a long way to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.(New York Times, 2017.12)

全球浪费的越少,越容易满足未来几年全球人口的粮食需求;第二,减少浪费对减少温室气体排放大有裨益。
这段话点明了节约粮食的两个好处:满足人口的粮食需求,减少温室气体排放。cut back on是外刊中经常出现的表达,阅读中可简单理解成 reduce “减少”,比如,cut back on your hours at work 减少你的工作时间。写作中如果我们能用 cut back on 替换 reduce,会使自己的表达增色不少。go a long way to/towards sth/doing 是一个非常地道的表达,英文解释是 to help very much in achieving sth 十分有助于、十分有利于,写作中可替换 be good for, be conducive to 等。

四、how-怎么做?

The most obvious way forward would be for them to eat all the foodstuffs they buy and cook. The use of smaller plates can actually encourage such behaviour. Lawmakers can help too: earlier this month Italy passed a new law to make it easier for supermarkets to donate unwanted items.

最显而易见的办法是让这些人买多少吃多少、做多少吃多少。使用小盘子实际上可以鼓励这一行为。立法者也能发挥作用:本月早些时候,意大利通过了一项新法律,能够让超市更加便利地捐赠多余物品。
这段话从“民众”和“法律”两个层面分析了该如何做,我们可以从中提炼出一套写作句型,用来引出措施、办法、建议等:The most obvious way forward would be XX. Lawmakers / Policy-makers can help, too: YY.最明显的办法是XX,立法者/政策制定者也能起到作用:YY。

以上内容希望能帮到大家,感谢阅读!

本文来自网络收集,如若转载,请注明出处:http://www.en369.cn/202099.html

发表评论

登录后才能评论