《天真之歌》与《经验之歌》选段赏析《伦敦》与《老虎》

 威廉·布莱克(William Blake)是十九世纪英国浪漫派诗人,主要诗作有诗集《天真之歌》、《经验之歌》等。早期作品简洁明快,中后期作品趋向玄妙晦涩,充满神秘色彩。威廉·布莱克(William Blake)的一生极其简单,也没有什么大书特写之处,只有一些一直延续的简单事实和紧迫的艺术创作活动。

人物简介

  1757年,他出生于伦敦一个贫寒的袜商家庭。由于个性过于独特,不喜欢正统学校的压抑气氛拒绝入学,因而没有受过正规教育。他从小就喜欢绘画和诗歌。11岁起就进入绘画学校学习了三年并表现出非凡的艺术才能。其父有意让他师从一位著名的画家继续深造,但他为了家庭及弟妹的前途而主动放弃了这次机会,去雕版印刷作坊当了一名学徒。他的一生便是一方面与妻子相依为命靠绘画和雕版的劳酬清贫为生,一方面继续从事12岁就开始的诗歌创作并配上自己的插图出版。直到1827年8月去世前的几天,他仍然在工作,”叫人用最后的几个先令去买碳笔”,画完最后一幅画把它放下,说道”我已经尽力而为了”。

  谈论威廉.布莱克必然要澄清有关对他的诸多猜测与指责,有人说他是疯子和魔鬼信仰的杜撰和散播者,像伦敦夜间人们能够听到的墓地里走出的勾小孩子灵魂的新年老人,当然,布莱克不可能如拉伯雷与阿莱丁诺一样对世俗做彻底的思考或澄清,也许他是信仰的迷雾,但那也是饱蘸着痛苦和爱的”紫雾”,布莱克开创了一种藉想象力促成的幻觉而进行的思考,从这一点上看,他启发了爱米莉迪金森和迪兰·托马斯,甚至阿尔蒂尔·兰波。布莱克是想象力的先知,和经验的忠实记录者,我们宁愿把他看成从 “魔鬼作坊”里冲出来的最优秀的净化知觉的学徒。

  布莱克最被人们引用和传诵的,也是后代文学大家反复赞美的几首诗歌如《擦烟囱的少年》、《保姆之歌》、《病玫瑰》、《老虎的赞美诗》,皆可以看作构筑布莱克之”天国原形”的一部分,这个自比为以西结的少年,四岁就看到了宗教幻象,并且可以用一种亲喃的语言和”白色诸神”寂静的交谈,尽管世风低落,文途滞涩,但布莱克怀着极大的天真和壮丽的想象力与战斗力,投入了类似班扬和马娄的”世俗反讽”运动中。

  这种文艺复兴是旨在和针对于时弊而进行的抒情与想象力神话的回归,这些人对美大加赞美,并加之比喻为自己的面具,而对尘世中的人的命运却大加伤感,并认为他们破坏了作家的”美”的面具。于是拉伯雷戴上了讽刺,班扬戴上了布道,马娄戴上了戏拟与夸张。

London
 I wandered through each chartered street.
 Near where the chartered Thames does flow.
 A mark in every face I meet.
 Marks of weakness, marks of woe.
 In every cry of every man
 In every infant's cry of fear
 In every voice, in every ban.
 The mind-forged manacles I hear:
 How the chimney-sweeper’s cry.
 Every blackening church appalls,
 And the hapless soldier's sigh
 Runs in blood down palace-walls.
 But most, through midnight streets I hear
 How the youthful harlot's curse
 Blasts the new-born infant's tear,
 And blights with plagues the marriage-hearse.
伦敦
我走过每条独占的街道,
徘徊在独占的泰晤士河边,
我看见每个过往的行人
有一张衰弱,痛苦的脸。
每个人的每声呼喊,
每个婴孩害怕的嚎叫,
每句话,每条禁令,
都响着心灵铸成的镣铐。
多少扫烟囱孩子的喊叫
震惊了一座座熏黑的教堂,
不幸兵士的长叹
化成鲜血流下了宫墙
最怕是深夜的街头
又听年轻妓女的的诅咒!
它骇注了出生儿的眼泪,
又用瘟疫摧残了婚礼丧车。
《天真之歌》与《经验之歌》选段赏析《伦敦》与《老虎》
伦敦
Hint of appreciation:


▼
"London", which had been written in 1794. is a lyric. Al the time, the Britain had been capitalism for centuries. The society became more decayed as the time past. In this poem. Blake viewed the larger society, in the form of contemporary London, with agonized doubt in Songs of Experience, in contrast his happy visions of the city in Songs of Innocence. This great poem is an especially powerful indictment of the new acquisitive society" then coming into being, and the poem's naked simplicity of language is the perfect medium for conveying Blake's anguished vision of a society dominated by money.



▼
Tyger
 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
 In the forests of the night,
 What immortal hand or eye
 Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
 In what distant deeps or skies
 Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
 On what wings dare he aspire?
 What the hand dare seize the fire?
 And what shoulder, and what art
 Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
 And when thy heart began to beat.
 What dread hand? and what dread feet
 What the hammer? what the chain?
 In what furnace was thy brain?
 What the anvil? What dread grasp
 Dare its deadly terrors clasp?
 When the stars threw down their spears,
 And water'd heaven with their tears,
 Did he smile his work lo see?
 Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
 Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
 In the forests of the night,
 What immortal hand or eye
 Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

猛虎,猛虎,火焰似的烧红
在深夜的莽丛
何等神明的巨眼或是手
能擎画你的骇人的雄厚?
在何等遥远的海底还是天顶
烧着你眼火的纯晶?
跨什么翅膀他胆敢飞腾?
凭什么手敢擒住那威棱?
是何等肩腕,是何等神通,
能雕镂你的藏府的系统?
等到你的心开始了活跳,
何等震惊的手,何等震惊的脚?
用的是什么垂?使得是什么练?
在什么洪炉里熬练你的脑液?
什么砧座,什么骇异的拿把
胆敢它的凶恶的惊怕擒抓?
当群星放射它们的金芒,
满天上泛滥着它们的泪光,
见到他的工程,他露不露笑容?
造你的不就是那造小羊的神工?
猛虎,猛虎,火焰似的烧红
在深夜的莽丛,
何等神明的巨眼或是手
胆敢擎画你的惊人的雄厚?

Hint of appreciation:


The symbolic meaning of tiger has long been a controversial topic. Some say the tiger in this
 poem is the incarnation of energy, strength, lust and cruelty: some say it has mysterious and
religious touches; some interpret the image of tiger as the revolutionary forces. Some other think
that in the vivid description of a dreadful and violent tiger, this poem attempts to account for real negative forces in the universe, which innocence fails to confront. Anyway, the tragic dilemma of mankind is poignantly summarized in the final question, “Did he who made the Lamb
make thee?” as “lamb” in this poem obviously conveys an opposite meaning to” tiger.

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